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History of gold in Russia
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History of gold in Russia.
Nevertheless, by the end of the XVII century about 140 hard rock gold occurrences had been found in the Urals and several new gold mines were put into production.
The gold output in the south of Western and Central Siberia grew up from 4.8t in 1842 up to 17.4 in 1855 (absolute record) and then began to decline (9.2t in 1875 and 6.3t in 1913). It put Russia to the first place amongst the gold mining nations for more than a decade before discoveries of gold in Victoria (Australia) and California.
Up until 1860 the alluvial gold mining was conducted very unprofessionally by numerous open cuts targeted at the riches pods and paystreaks. Human muscles and horses predominantly did earthmoving and the paydirt was washed on primitive sluices. After 1861 with the abolition of serfdom and rapid industrial development the gold mining became more and more advanced and mechanized. It was in the 60-s when disintegration and screening bowls and trommels were introduced. But horsepower remained the main earthmoving force till the end of the XIX century when dredging was successfully introduced with assistance of the Western professionals.
The presence of gold colors in the basin of the Amur River was first discovered in 1850-1851 by an expedition led by a mining engineer Metlitsky. Several years later a specialized of gold prospecting expedition headed by a mining engineer Anosov was sent to the Amur region. In the winter 1857-58 the expedition struck gold in the basin of the Maya river. The next several years of extensive search brought numerous discoveries. From 1870 to 1899 the Government bodies registered 2955 mining claims and 790 alluvial operations were put into production.
The year 1891 became known due to the first discovery of hard rock gold deposit called The Gold Hill (Zolotaya Gora). It was quickly put into production and during the first 4 years about 1.6t of gold were produced from the oxide zone. The deposit has been intermittently mined since then till recently.
The major gold district of the Amur region - the Zeyski - yielded 66.8t of gold from 1876 to 1900. Several dozen more tons were also produced in other districts of the province. The annual output of the province in 1868-1891 had been making up to 5t of gold.
The first Russian dredge was introduced into mining practice in the Amur region by the Verkhne-Amurskaya company in 1894. The dredge was built in Holland (Haarlem, Wharf Conrad). Its on-site construction (which took a year) and launch into production was supervised by a Dutch engineer A. de Haas who kept looking after it for 4 years. The management of the operation was conducted by an engineer A.A. Perre who had previously visited Australia and New Zealand in order to get familiarized with gold mining in these countries.
In 1908 for the first time in the Russian history a mining complex consisting of a digger (made in S-Petersburg) and washing plant mounted on a train moving over a 1.5km long railroad was put into production in the Amur province. In 1910-12, much later than in other countries several successful hydraulic operations commenced here.
In 1902-1915 about 96t of gold were produced in the province. A considerable amount of gold was registered even in 1916-1920 during the years of the Civil War. The dynamics of officially recorded gold production in the province are shown in the following table:
1867 ñ 1901 166t
1902 ñ 1915 96t
1916 ñ 1920 16t
1921 ñ 1922 3t
It is noteworthy that in 1910-1918 the officially registered operations produced 33.7t of gold where as in reality its amount in bullion made up 111.2t! Needless to say the surplus of gold was achieved due to unregistered illegal mining. Meanwhile only in 1910-1918 more than 9t of gold were smuggled into China. That is why some historians believe that the real gold output in the province before 1922 made up 940t of gold it doesnít seem to be unrealistic!
This country (Primorie - Seaside Land) encompassing a considerable part of the Low Amur basin became known as a gold producer in 1871 although small groups of Russian and Chinese prospectors and miners operated here since 1856. It produced about 58t of gold between 1871 and 1918. This province may be depicted as less advanced in terms of introduction of new techniques of gold mining compared to the Upper and Mid Amur province what was caused by isolation and poor accessibility of many operations. In 1914 (just before the outbreak of WWI) out of 52 registered operations only 9 were mechanized: there were 4 dredges, 2 diggers, 3 trommels. It is noteworthy that these operations yielded 41.2% of annual output of the province (1066.1kg out of 2584kg). The rest of the diggings were then still being driven by human muscles and horsepower. Needless to say a considerable amount of gold, probably, dozens of tons, was smuggled into nearby China in 1871-1918.
The mountains of these lands adjacent to the coast of the Okhotskoye sea were known of alluvial gold since 1856. But their isolation, severe climate and poor accessibility remained an obstacle for explorers and miners till the end of the XIX century. Moreover it is still a puzzle why the Russians tended to explore and develop the Pacific coast of Alaska instead of Priokhotie where they had established their first fort Okhotsk already in 1688! However, the first alluvial operations commenced production in its southern portion only in 1899. By the year 1912 gold mining had extended up north. It is noteworthy that the foreign investors (Americans, British, and French) played a significant role in gold exploration and opening of new mines. During the pre-Soviet period the province produced not less than 55-60 tons of gold.
This district being only a part of a major gold province named Zabaikalie (Transbaikalia or land beyond the Baikal Lake) still remains a jewel in the crown of the Russian gold mining industry. First strikes of alluvial gold occurred in this area in 1843 but they were minor compared to finds in other parts of Southern Siberia and failed to ignite a gold rush. Three years later two exploration parties organized by a merchant Constantin Trapeznikov and headed by a peasant Peter Kornilov and a suburban Nikolay Okulovsky discovered two enormously rich placers in the basin of the Khomolkho River. A series of new discoveries followed over the next 5-8 years and how rich they were! Many rivers yielded up to several tons of gold from each kilometer of their length. Some operations encompassing 2-3 river valleys produced dozens of tons of gold. In 1868 famous placers of the Bodaibo River basin were discovered. The pay layers of these placers were mostly deeply (25-60m) buried in palaeochannels under younger barren sediments of alluvial, lacustrine and glacial genesis. They became an arena of large scale underground mining.
The complicated geological and mining conditions caused introduction of new methods of alluvial mining. Since 1868 large boulders and bulges of bedrock were blasted with application of gun powder, and after 1885 the dynamite was introduced. Permafrost was melted by boulders white-heated on fires or merely by burning of firewood in front of or over mining faces.
Due to their enormous wealth the operations of the Lenski district are known as ìthe firstî in terms of many technical innovations. In 1876 the first steam-powered water pumps were introduced for drying of underground workings. In 1880 the first horse-powered rail road was built on the Blagoveshensky mine and in 1883 the first steam powered ventilation system. In 1889 the first in Russia hydraulic operation was put into production on the Pavlovsky mine but it was an ill-famed attempt as the engineers failed to handle very high pressure which burst the pipelines. Hydraulic mining was successfully introduced into mine practice only after 1917. In 1896 the first in Russia electric powered rail road was built on one of the mines in basin of the Nygry River. It was successfully used for transportation of stripped waste and tailings. In 1899 electric power was first used for skipping in a shaft. The dredging came to the district later then in the Amur province only in 1914 (again it was a dredge built in Holland).
The total amount of alluvial mines operating in the district made up its peak in 1914 - 140. In 1915 the peak of annual output was reached and made up 14.5t. It is noteworthy that the mining in the district was extremely highly monopolized and 94% of all gold were produced by the reigning operator - the Lenzoloto company. During the pre-Soviet period of its history the district produced about 660tons of alluvial gold what had made 23% of the whole Russian output since the beginning of gold mining in this country. Again, in reality this figure must have been by 15-40% higher as nobody knows how much gold was mined illegally and smuggled across the Chinese border...
Before the WWI Russia remained one of the major gold producers. Its annual output (64 tons) followed South Africa (264t), USA (145t) and Australia (99t). Years of revolt and major upheavals in the life of the Russian and then Soviet Empire were to come. The Russian quest for gold, however, stayed alive. New provinces and greatest deposits were discovered after 1917 and many tragic and glorious pages of the history of the Russian gold mining were written. After the WWII the USSR became the second gold producer in the world and remained on this placed until 1991 when one third of the Soviet gold production was taken over by several newly independent states of the Central Asia.